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Thursday, 8 October 2015

The Nobel Prize for Physics- 2015 has been awarded for neutrino puzzles for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass The discovery led to the far-reaching conclusion that neutrinos, which for a long time were considered massless, must have some mass, however small

The Nobel Prize for Physics- 2015 has been awarded for neutrino puzzles that physicists had wrestled with for decades had been resolved. Compared to theoretical calculations of the number of neutrinos, up to two thirds of the neutrinos were missing in measurements performed onEarth and also that for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass The discovery led to the far-reaching conclusion that neutrinos, which for a long time were considered massless, must have some mass, however small.
Please readURL 
and also the  advanced Report of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science in PDF for 2015 Nobel prize in Physics 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      That the Neutrinos has mass was also published by us in various times  as  in the " Science Blog"  as we told there   "Neutrinos were also non-Zero mass particles according authors , though in standard teaching, it is mass less. There are broadly three (3) species of ‘Neutrinos”. I) Electron neutrinos 2) Muon neutrinos 3) tat neutrinos and 4th variety we say Missing Neutrinos. During first half of twentieth century, physicists were convinced that all stars including our Sun, shines by converting, deep in its interior, hydrogen into helium. According ,this theory, 4 hydrogen nuclei called protons (p) are changed within solar interior into a 4He nucleus, 02 anti-electrons (e+, positively charged electrons), and 02 elusive and mysterious ghostly particles called neutrinos . This process of nuclear conversion, believed responsible for sunshine and therefore for all life on Earth. Conversion process, which involves many different nuclear reactions, can be written schematically as: 4p→4He +2e+ +2ve —-[1] as Bhattacharya Rupak wrote it once in 1995. I.e, two neutrinos produced each time as the fusion reaction (1) within star. Since 4 protons are heavier than a helium nucleus, two positive electrons and two neutrinos, reaction (1) releases lot of energies to Sun, that ultimately reaches earth as sunlight. The reaction occurs very frequently. Neutrinos escape easily from Sun their energy does not appear as solar heat or sunlight in earth. Sometimes neutrinos are produced with relatively low energies and Sun gets lot of heat. Sometimes neutrinos are produced with higher energies and Sun gets less energy. Neutrinos have zero electric charge, interact very rarely with matter, – according to particle physic’s very high reference level textbook version of the standard model of particle physics – they are mass less. About 1000 billion neutrinos from Sun pass through your thumbnail every seconds, but you do not feel them because, they interact so rarely and so weakly with matter. Neutrinos are practically indestructible; almost nothing happens to them. For every hundred billions solar neutrinos passing through Earth every seconds, only about one interacts if at all with stuff of Earth is made. Because they interact so rarely, neutrinos can escape easily from solar interior, where they are created and bring direct information about solar fusion reactions to us on Earth. There are three known types of neutrinos already told. Nuclear fusion in Sun produces only neutrinos that are associated with electrons, the so-called electron neutrinos . The two other types of neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos , are produced, for example, in laboratory accelerators or in exploding stars, together with heavier versions of the electron, the particles muon and tau . But there are some missing neutrinos too. All accepted models in cosmology & in particle physics however accept that neutrinos are mass less or so. But some idea that neutrinos might have mass also was about 40 yearsold."
 See at Science Blogs comment published   titled "Faster Than a Speeding Photon: “Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam” Posted by Chad Orzel on September 24, 2011 and the   published comment no 43 by Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya on September 28, 2011 as it was titled "Tachyons is an mathematical Imaginary particle that may move faster then Photons (Light particles) in the universe and yet to be discovered"
click on Links

                                                                                                                                                           Please Read also in our published article " Tachyon- Faster than Light Particle Exist in Our Universe or an Imaginary Mathematical Particle" by authors Rupak Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, Upasana Bhattachary, Ritwik Bhattacharya,Rupsa Bhattacharya, Dalia Mukherjee, Oaindrila Mukherjee, Aiyshi Mukherjee, Hindole Banerjee,Arunava Das  published at International Journal of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science 2015; 2(3): 12-29 Published online May 10, 2015 ( where we authors clearly told that "...........There is till no confirmed mass evidences that neutrinos have a non zero mass particles............
(Bhattacharjee Rupak and Bhattacharya Pranab Kumar)..........see at Page Nos 15-16                                                                                                        

Click also  on The Guridian UK at URL   Published at journal  Physics Org titled as" Fate of a Star supernovas and mechanism of explosion of supernovas" at physics org of American Physical Society as a published comment of an article "Rare radio supernova in nearby galaxy is nearest supernova in five years" Click on URL                  
See at Face Book of  "Questions for David Gross" by Prof Pranab Kr Bhattacharya Click on URL            
Please See the Published articles on  Blogs of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya at Google under blog title : Where from mass came in the universe?- Did the mass originated from mass less particle in Higgs Field - A child like question & quest! Is it really So?" Click on URL or                                                                             
  See the article Methods of Evaluation and Extraction of Membership Functions--Review with a New Approach" by authors Dwijesh Dutta Majumder, Rupak Bhattacharyya, Supratim Mukherjee click on URL
                                                                                                                                                      Published articles on Blogs of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya at Google under blog title " A smaller particle then quarks-possible at all?" please click on URL                                                                       
Published articles on Blogs of Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya at Google under blog title Where Went the Anti matter?

[Next Tuesday the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences will announce the winner (or winners) of this year's Nobel Prize in Physics. AIP's Ben Stein predicts that Kent Ford and Vera Rubin will be honored for their discovery, derived from stellar velocities, that the Andromeda Galaxy contains much more mass than is present in its visible stars. Since Ford and Rubin's paper was published in 1970, additional lines of evidence, including observations by Ford and Rubin of other galaxies, have supported their discovery. Now the only plausible explanation is that galaxies and the space between them are pervaded by an unknown kind of "dark matter," whose interactions with itself and with normal matter are either through the gravitational force or very weak]

Thursday, 1 October 2015

Can we protect the population from Dengue diseases by a recombinant live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine?

Rapid Responses Published in BMJ on 29 September 2015as Letter to Editor

Research News

Trial results raise hope for dengue fever vaccine

BMJ 2015; 350 doi: (Published 09 January 2015) Cite this as: BMJ 2015;350:h141

Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya MD (Calcutta Univ) FIC Path(India)  now Professor of Pathology at   Murshidabad District Medical College, West Bengal Behrampore Station Road ; Behrampore Court Murshidabad District West Bengal India          

Dengue is a mosquito (Ades aegypti) borne viral illness in the tropics and subtropics including in India. Approximately 350 million infections occur annually, of which 96 millions have clinical manifestations on infection with one of four serotypes (DENV 1,2,3.4) of the dengue virus. These may result in asymptomatic infections, mild non-specific viral flu-like illness, classic dengue (DHF), and severe dengue-manifested by plasma leakage, hemorrhage, hepatitis, renal failure, multi-organ failure and finally death. Severe dengue may also manifest with variant types of atypical signs [3] and symptoms, and when a second infection with different serotypes occurs, people are at increased risk of severe dengue.
The incidence of dengue is increasing globally and becoming endemic. Dengue is almost endemic throughout India. The incidence of Dengue in 2014 was 47,000 cases in China as of May 2015; Malaysia reported more cases compared with 2014, and as of June 2015 Brazil reported over a million suspected cases of Dengue. Resource poor health care systems as in India depend on simple to perform and easy to interpret laboratory tests for diagnosis. It is known that early diagnosis of DHF and DSS followed by supportive therapy reduces morbidity and mortality from Dengue. Thrombocytopenia, NS1 antigen IgM & IgG by immunochromatographic tests are the mainstay of diagnosis of Dengue infections in peripheral areas; most tertiary care laboratories have Mac Enzyme Linked immunosorbant Assay for qualitative and quantitative detection, and PCR based diagnostic modality are found in research laboratories and medical colleges of Kolkata metro cities. Ns1 has 30% positivity, becoming more positive when there is more viral load.
There is yet no available medicine or vaccine for treatment and protection against dengue fever. Prevention is protection from mosquito bites and vector control--ie, reducing A. aegypti larvae and pupae.
There is a tetravalent recombinant live attenuated Dengue vaccine (CYT-TDV) having CYD-1 through CYD-4 which requires 3 injections at 0, 6, and 12 months. The efficacy rate was 60.8 (95% CI) and in children 64.7% (95%CI 58.7-69.8). For serotype DNV-1 the efficacy rate was 50.3%, for serotype 2, 42.3%, serotype 3, 74% and serotype-4, 77.4%. This vaccine was tested in 20,869 children in Latin America, where dengue infection is epidemic in age group 9-16 years, during June 2011-March 2012. [1] During follow up for 2 years a total of 10,053 febrile episodes were reported, 8965 (89.2%) blood samples were collected within 5 days of fever and VCD was diagnosed only in 668 cases by Mac ELISA and RTPCR; efficacy was highest for DNEV-4 and lowest for DNV-2 and varied between countries tested in a phase 3 clinical trial. [1]
Adverse effects of CYT-TDV occurred in 121 children, including moderate asthma attacks, allergic urticaria after the 2nd injection, acute peripheral neuropathy after the 1st injection, viral meningitis, unspecified seizure. Efficacy of this vaccine in reducing hospitalization is 80.3% against severe dengue.
The dengue vaccine is facing numerous challenges, according to the authors.[1] Viable dengue vaccine must be capable of protecting against disease caused by any of the 4 serotypes. [2] Problems include the lack of a validated animal model of human dengue disease, [3] incomplete understanding of immunopathology, [4], the release of neutralizing antibodies assays, and cross reactivity among serotypes.
Now the questions remain can we protect our population fom Dengue diseases and can we reduce the population of patients with severe dengue with this CYT-TDV vaccine? Why the disparity in efficacy in antibody response and against the 4 serotypes?
1] Luis Villov, Gustavo Horacid. Dayan ; Jose Arrendondo Gurcia; Doris Maribel Revera etal “ Efficacy of a tetravalent Dengue vaccine in Children in Latim Ameria” N engl.j. med 2015; 372; 113-23
2] Professor Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, Ritwik Bhattacharya, Rupak Bhattacharya Dahlia Mukherjee, UpasanaBhattacharya etal Plaque reduction neutralization test for dengue virus is more sensitive test but expensive Rapid Response Published BMJ 13 December 2009 of article Clinical Review Diagnosis and management of dengue
3] Professor DR. Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya, Dengue fever in Kolkata, West Bengal India with atypical presentations and its prevention Blogs of Professor(Dr.) Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya MD(cal.Univ) Pathology;
Competing interests: No competing interests

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